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    (51.40 KB 669x424 Random-02.jpg)
    Random reading Fritz 12/25/2020 (Fri) 06:50:47 No. 530
    Notes
    Hand on a Hot StoveTeacher Answer KeyIntroduction: When You Put Your Hand on a Hot Stove Think about what happens if you accidentally place your hand on a hot stove. Use numbers 1-5 to place these statements in the order in which they happen. 4 You wave or shake your hand voluntarily to cool it. 2 Your arm moves to automatically move your hand away from the stove. 3 You feel pain in your hand. 5 You remember that you should not touch a hot stove. 1 You touch a hot stove.
    Life Sciences Learning Center Copyright © 2013 by University of Rochester. All rights reserved. May be copied for classroom use7Part 3: Using Your BrainYou are capable of behaviors that are more complex than simple reflexes. Complex behaviors require the involvement of parts of the brain. For example, when you put your hand on a hot stove, you use your brain for things that are not reflexes, such as conscious sensations, voluntary movements, and memories.
    Conscious Sensations Conscious sensations include the sensations such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain. To feel pain, impulses travel from the receptors in your hand to the spinal cord through sensory neurons. In the spinal cord, the sensory neurons synapse with interneurons that carry impulses to the sensory cortex area of the cerebrum in your brain. When the impulses arrive at the sensory cortex of the cerebrum, you experience the sensation of PAIN!
    Voluntary Movements Once you feel pain, voluntary movements occur. For example, you cool your hand by shaking it or placing it in cold water. Impulses for voluntary movement begin in the motor cortex of the cerebrum. The motor cortex sends impulses via interneurons to the cerebellum where motor activity is coordinated. Then, the impulses are sent via interneurons in the spinal cord to the motor neurons that control the muscles involved in arm and hand movement.
    Memories Impulses from the sensory cortex are conducted over interneurons to the prefrontal cortex of the cerebrum to be “recorded” as memories that associate the sight of a hot stove with pain. These memories cause you to be more careful when you are near a hot stove.
    Patient’s response when their hand is poked with a needle Number on Neuron Pathway Damagediagram Anna can feel pain and her arm automatically moves away. She can voluntarily move her arm. No Damage Bart can feel pain and his arm automatically moves away. He cannot voluntarily move his arm. 1 Connie’s arm automatically moves away but she does not feel pain. She can voluntarily move her arm. 2 David does not feel any pain and his arm does not move automatically. He can voluntarily move his arm. 4 Erin’s arm automatically moves. She does not feel pain and she cannot move her arm. 3 Fred can feel pain. His arm does not move automatically and he cannot voluntarily move his arm. 5
    Reflexes If you touch something that is very hot, your hand moves away quickly before you even feel the pain. You don’t have to think about it because the response is a reflex that does not involve the brain. A reflex is a rapid, unlearned, involuntary (automatic) response to a stimulus (change in the environment). Reflexes are responses that protect the body from potentially harmful events that require immediate action. They involve relatively few neurons (nerve cells) so that they can occur rapidly. There are a wide variety of reflexes that we experience every day such as sneezing, coughing, and blinking. We also automatically duck when an object is thrown at us, and our pupils automatically change size in response to light. These reflexes have evolved because they protect the body from potentially harmful events. Most reflexes protect people from injury or deal with things that require immediate action. Reflex actions do not involve the higher brain regions involved in conscious sensation, decision-making, and voluntary movement. Involving higher brain regions would take too long, potentially exposing the body to risks. Using the reflex pathway as a shortcut allows reflexes to occur very rapidly.
    The response This occurs when the motor neurons deliver nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the part of the body where a response to the stimulus is needed. In the above example, the response is the muscle contraction to quickly pull the hand away from the hot pot. In the second example, the response is to blink to prevent the insect from making contact with the eye.
    Reflex Action If you accidentally touch a hot pot on your stove while cooking, you would involuntarily (and nearly instantaneously) snatch your hand away from the pot. This response is called a ‘reflex action'.

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